Interactions between microbiota, diet/nutrients and immune/inflammatory response in rheumatic diseases: focus on rheumatoid arthritis
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Research Laboratory and Academic Unit of Clinical Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Genova, IRCCS San Martino Polyclinic Hospital, Genova, Italy
Submission date: 2019-04-26
Final revision date: 2019-05-28
Acceptance date: 2019-05-28
Online publication date: 2019-06-28
Publication date: 2019-06-28
Reumatologia 2019;57(3):151–157
Rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases (RMDs) are chronic systemic immune/inflammatory conditions characterized by the interaction between gene predisposition, autoimmunity and environmental factors. A growing scientific interest has focused on the role of diet in RMDs, suggesting its significant contribution to the pathogenesis and prognosis of these diseases. It is now clear that diet can directly modulate the immune response by providing a wide range of nutrients, which interfere with multiple pathways at both the gastro-intestinal and systemic level. Moreover, diet critically shapes the human gut microbiota, which is recognized to have a central role in the modulation of the immune response and in RMD pathogenesis. We hereby provide an in-depth analysis on the role of the microbiota in RMDs and on nutritional intervention as an integral part of a multidisciplinary approach. Particular attention will be given to the Mediterranean diet, as the only diet proven to support substantial benefits in RMD management.
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