The significance of infections in autoimmune diseases
More details
Hide details
Online publication date: 2010-04-08
Reumatologia 2009;47(6):332-338
Development of autoimmune diseases, characterized by the breakdown of self-antigens’ toleration by the immune system, most likely is related to activity of a complex of intrinsic and external factors, including genetic, immunological and hormonal abnormalities, as well as environmental conditions. Among the latter factors, the most important elements seem to be viral, bacterial or parasitic infections. On the other hand, a growing body of evidence indicates that some infectious diseases may also protect against autoimmune disorders. Those potential pathogenic or protective roles of infections in development of autoimmunity are discussed in this article.
Shoenfeld Y, Zandmann-Goddard G, Stojanovich L, et al. The mosaic of autoimmunity: hormonal and environmental factors involved in autoimmune diseases. IMAJ 2008; 10: 8-12. .
Kivity S, Agmon-Levin N, Blank M, et al. Infections and autoimmunity – friends or foes? Trends Immunol 2009; 30: 409-414. .
Doria A. Infections, rheumatism and autoimmunity: The conflicting relationship between humans and their environment. Autoimmun Rev 2008; 8: 1-4. .
Ercolini AM, Miller SD. The role of infections in autoimmune diseases. Clin Exp Immunol 2008; 155: 1-15. .
Bach JF. Infections and autoimmune diseases. J Autoimmun 2005; 25: 74-80. .
Mackay IR, Leskovek NV, Rose NR. Cell damage and autoimmunity; a critical appraisal. J Autoimmun 2008; 30: 5-11. .
Fujinami RS, Oldstone MB. Molecular mimicry as a mechanism for virus-induced autoimmunity. Immunol Res 1989; 8: 3-15. .
Oldstone MB. Molecular mimicry and immune-mediated diseases. FASEB J 1998; 12: 1255-1265. .
Samarkos M, Vaiopoulos G. The role of infections in the pathogenesis of autoimmnune diseases. Curr Drug Targets Inflamm Allergy 2005; 4: 99-103. .
Ospelt C, Gay S. TLRs and chronic inflammation. Int J Biochem Cell Biol 2009 Oct 17; [Epub ahead of print]. .
Pisetsky DS. The role of innate immunity in the induction of autoimmunity. Autoimmun Rev 2008; 8: 69-72. .
Oukka M. Th17 cells in immunity and autoimmunity. Ann Rheum Dis 2008; 67 (Suppl III): 26-29. .
Koutouzov S, Mathian A, Dalloul A. Type-I interferons and systemic lupus erythematosus. Autoimmun Rev 2006; 5: 554-562. .
Gottenberg JE, Cagnard N, Lucchesi C, et al. Activation of IFN pathways and plasmacytoid dendritic cell recruitment in target organs of primary Sjögren's syndrome. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2006; 103: 2770-2775. .
Walsh RJ, Kong SW, Yao Y, et al. Type I interferon-inducible gene expression in blood is present and reflects disease activity in dermatomyositis and polymyositis. Arthritis Rheum 2007; 56: 3784-3792. .
Friedman I, Laufer A, Ron N, et al. Experimental myocarditis: in vitro and in vivo studies of lymphocytes sensitized to heart extracts and group A streptococci. Immunology 1971; 20: 225-232. .
Cunningham MW, McCormack JM, Talaber LR, et al. Human monoclonal antibodies reactive with antigens of the group A Streptococcus and human heart. J Immunol 1988; 141: 2760-2766. .
Adderson EE, Shikhman AR, Ward KE, et al. Molecular analysis of polyreactive monoclonal antibodies from rheumatic carditis: human anti-N-acetylglucosamine/anti-myosin antibody V region genes. J Immunol 1998; 161: 2020-2231. .
Mertens NM, Galvin JE, Adderson EE, et al. Molecular analysis of cross-reactive anti-myosin/anti-streptococcal mouse monoclonal antibodies. Mol Immunol 2000; 37: 901-913. .
Cunningham MW, McCormack JM, Fenderson PG, et al. Human and murine antibodies cross-reactive with streptococcal M protein and myosin recognize the sequence GLN-LYS-SER-LYS-GLN in M protein. J Immunol 1989; 143: 2677-2683. .
Bronze MS, Dale JB. Epitopes of streptococcal M proteins that evoke antibodies that cross-react with human brain. J Immunol 1993; 151: 2820-2828. .
Kalish RA, Leong JM, Steere AC. Early and late antibody responses to full- length and truncated constructs of outer surface protein A of Borrrelia burgdorferi in Lyme disease. Infect Immun 1995; 63: 2228-2235. .
Szechiński J. Borelioza. W: Reumatologia kliniczna. Tom 2. Zimmermann-Górska I. (red.). Wyd. Lek. PZWL, Warszawa 2008; 799-804. .
Unterman A, Shoenfeld Y, Chapman J. Guillain-Barré and other immune-mediated neuropathies. In: Diagnostic Criteria in Autoimmune Diseases. Shoenfeld Y, Cervera R, Gershwin ME (ed.). Humana Press 2008; 427-432. .
Aspinall GO, Fujimoto S, McDonald AG, et al. Lipopolisaccharides from Campylobacter jejuni associated with Guillain-Barré syndrome patients mimic human gangliosides in structure. Infect Immun 1994; 62: 2122-2125. .
Koga M, Yuki N. Campylobacter jejuni cst-II polymorphisms and association with development of Guillain-Barré syndrome. Neurology 2007; 69: 1727-1728. .
Lasky T, Terracciano GJ, Magder L, et al. The Guillain-Barré syndrome and the 1992-1993 and 1993-1994 influenza vaccines. N Engl J Med 1998; 339: 1797-1802. .
Bertolaccini ML, Hughes GRV, Khamashta MA. Systemic lupus erythematosus. In: Diagnostic Criteria in Autoimmune Diseases. Shoenfeld Y, Cervera R, Gershwin ME (ed.). Humana Press 2008; 3-8. .
Tsai YT, Chiang BL, Kao YF, et al. Detection of Epstein-Barr virus and cytomegalovirus genome in white blood cells from patients with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis and childhood systemic lupus erythematosus. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 1995; 106: 235-240. .
Kang I, Quan T, Nolasco H, et al. Defective control of latent Epstein-Barr virus infection in systemic lupus erythematosus. J Immunol 2004; 172: 1287-1294. .
Zandman-Goddard G, Berkun Y, Barzilai O, et al. Exposure to Epstein-Barr virus infection is associated with mild systemic lupus erythematosus disease. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2009; 1173: 658-663. .
Medzhitov R. Toll-like receptors and innate immunity. Nature Rev Immunol 2001; 1: 135-145. .
Gross AJ, Hochberg D, Rand WM, et al. EBV and systemic lupus erythematosus: a new perspective. J Immunol 2005; 174: 6599-6607. .
Strachan DP. Hay fever, hygiene, and household size. Br Med J 1989; 299: 1259-1260. .
Bodansky HJ, Staines A, Stephenson C, et al. Evidence for an environmental effect in the aetiology of insulin dependent diabetes in a transmigratory population. Br Med J 1992; 304: 1020-1022. .
Ram M, Anaya JM, Barzilai O, et al. The putative protective role of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection from autoimmune disorders. Autoimmun Rev 2008; 7: 621-625. .
Krause I, Anaya JM, Fraser A, et al. Anti-infectious antibodies and autoimmune-associated autoantibodies in patients with type I diabetes mellitus and their close family members. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2009; 1173: 633-639. .
King C, Ilic A, Koelsch K, et al. Homeostatic expansion of T cells Turing immune insufficiency generates autoimmunity. Cell 2004; 117: 265-277. .
Alyanakian MA, Grela F, Aumenieur A, et al. TGF-beta and NKT cells are involved In the protective effect of a bacterial extract on type 1 diabetes. Diabetes 2006; 55: 179-185. .
Lang KS, Recher M, Junt T, et al. Toll-like receptor engagement converts T-cell autoreactivity into overt autoimmune disease. Nat Med 2005; 111: 138-145. .
Quintana FJ, Rotem A, Carmi P, et al. Vaccination with empty plasmid DNA or CpG oligonucleotide inhibits diabetes in nonobese diabetic mice: modulation of spontaneous 60-kDa heat shock protein autoimmunity. J Immunol 2000; 165: 6148-6155. .
Conti F, Rezai S, Valesini G. Vaccination and autoimmune rheumatic diseases. Autoimmun Rev 2008; 8: 124-128. .
Shoenfeld Y, Aharon-Maor A, Sherer Y. Vaccination as an additional player in the mosaic of autoimmunity. Clin Exp Rheumatol 2000; 18: 181-184. .
Nocton JJ, Bloom BJ, Rutledge BJ, et al. Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi DNA by polymerase chain reaction in synovial fluid from patients with Lyme arthritis. N Engl J Med 1994; 330: 229-234. .
Sigal LH. Lyme disease; a review of aspects of its immunology and immunopathogenesis. Ann Rev Immunol 1997; 15: 63-92. .
Sriram S, Stratton CW, Yao S, et al. Chlamydia pneumoniae infection of the central nervous system in multiple sclerosis. Ann Neurol 1999; 46: 6-14. .
Mori M, Kuwabara S, Miyake M, et al. Hemophilus influenzae infection and Guillain-Barré syndrome. Brain 2000; 123: 2171-2178. .
Kusunoki S, Shiina M, Kanazawa I. Anti-Gal-C antibodies in GBS subsequent to mycoplasma infection: evidence of molecular mimicry. Neurology 2001; 57: 736-738. .
Fenderson PG, Fischetti VA, Cunningham MW. Tropomyosin shares immunologic epitopes with group A streptococcal M proteins. J Immunol 1989; 142: 2475-2481. .
Snider LA, Swedo SE. Post-streptococcal autoimmune disorders of the central nervous system. Curr Opin Neurol 2003; 16: 359-365. .
Kurlan R. Tourette's syndrome and 'PANDAS': will the relation bear out? Pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infection. Neurology 1998; 50: 1530-1534. .
Cunha-Neto E, Dzau VJ, Allen PD, et al. Cardiac gene expression profiling provides evidence for cytokinopathy as a molecular mechanism in Chagas' disease cardiomyopathy. Am J Pathol 2005; 167: 305-313. .
Lundberg P, Welander P, Han X, et al. Herpes simplex virus type 1 DNA is immunostimulatory in vitro and in vivo. J Virol 2003; 77: 11158-11169. .
Barzilai O, Sherer Y, Ram M, et al. Epstein-Barr virus and cytomegalovirus in autoimmune diseases: are they truly notorious? A preliminary report. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2007; 1108: 567-577. .
Toussirot E, Roudier J. Epstein-Barr virus in autoimmune diseases. Best Pract Res Clin Reumatol 2008; 22: 883-896. .
Jun HS, Yoon JW. A new look at viruses in type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Metab Res Rev 2003; 19: 8-31. .
Tam PE. Coxsackievirus myocarditis: interplay between virus and host in the pathogenesis of heart disease. Viral Immunol 2006; 19: 133-146. .
Pak Y, Eun HM, McArthur RG, et al. Association of cytomegalovirus infection with autoimmune type 1 diabetes. Lancet 1988; 2: 1-4. .
Labarca JA, Rabaggliati RM, Radrigan FJ, et al. Antiphospholipid syndrome associated with cytomegalovirus infection: case report and review. Clin Infect Dis 1997; 24: 197-200. .
Agmon-Levin N, Ram M, Barzilai O, et al. Prevalence of hepatitis C serum antibody in autoimmune diseases. J Autoimmun 2009; 32: 261-266. .
Antonelli, Ferri C, Ferrari SM, et al. Immunopathogenesis of HCV-related endocrine manifestation in chronic hepatitis and mixed cryoglobulinemia. Autoimmune Rev 2008; 8: 18-23.
Copyright: © Narodowy Instytut Geriatrii, Reumatologii i Rehabilitacji w Warszawie. This is an Open Access journal, all articles are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0) License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/), allowing third parties to copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format and to remix, transform, and build upon the material, provided the original work is properly cited and states its license.
Journals System - logo
Scroll to top